We have seen how normal conception happens and so now the question arises as to what is infertility and what it means to be an infertile couple? If a couple is infertile, this means that they have been unable to conceive a child after 12 months of regular sexual intercourse without birth control. Primary infertility means they have never had a child.

Secondary infertility means that the infertile person has had one or more children in the past, but a medical problem is impairing fertility. About one in seven couples are infertile. Age, lifestyle and physical problems can all contribute to infertility. The four factors responsible for conception are- Eggs, sperms, uterus and tubes. If either one or many has/have a problem then conception could be difficult. And there may be the need to seek help from an expert.


Female Infertility

    Infertility in a woman may stem from many causes, such as hormonal deficiencies, problems in the reproductive organs, and some illnesses. Complications from surgery and certain medications may also impair fertility

    The most likely causes for female infertility are:

  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)

  • Endometriosis

  • Other sexually transmitted diseases such as genital herpes can decrease fertility

  • Ovary Problems

  • Hormonal Problems

  • Immune System Problems

  • Luteal Phase Defect

  • Fibroids

  • Other Uterine Problems

  • Surgical Complications

  • Uterine muscle problems

  • Poor quality cervical mucous

  • Illness

  • Medications

  • Premature Menopause

  • Other causes: some other contributors to infertility include excessive exercise, stress or anorexia

    Male Inferility

  • Vas Deferens- the tubes that conduct sperm and testicular fluid from the epididymis into the ejaculatory ducts.

  • Penis- the male organ of intercourse

  • Urethra- the tube through which urine from the bladder is expelled.

  • Epididymis- the tightly coiled, thin-walled tube that conducts sperm from the testicles to the vas deferens.

  • e.Testicle (testis)- the male gonad; it produces sperm and male sex hormones.

  • f.Prostate- the male gland encircling the urethra that produces one third of the fluid in the ejaculate.

    The most common causes for male infertility are:

  • Problem with the sperm - either low sperm count or sperm with poor quality

  • Under-developed testes-usually arising after a mumps infection, a hernia surgery, an injury or birth defect.

  • Swollen veins in the scrotum.

  • Undescended testes-a problem often present from birth in which the testes remain in the body cavity. Normally they descend into the scrotum before birth.

  • Infections, such as gonorrhea or tuberculosis, that block the ducts through which the sperm travel.

  • Exposure to metals such as leads, or chemicals such as pesticides.

  • Certain medications

  • Injury to the testicles

  • Chronic prostate infections

  • Autoimmunity, in which antibodies or cells of the man's immune system attack sperm cells, mistaking them for toxic invaders.

  • Retrograde ejaculation

  • Drugs such as tranquilizers or high blood pressure medicines.

  • Diseases such as diabetes or multiple sclerosis.

  • Neck, bladder or prostate surgery.

  • Spinal cord injury.

  • Small percentage of cases, male infertility is caused by sexual difficulties such as impotence, premature ejaculation, or painful intercourse. Genetic defects or structural problems. Defects in the Y chromosome or in certain genes may also play a part in infertility. Rarely, a hormonal difficulty that decreases or stops the man's production of sperm. Hormonal problems may be present from birth or can develop from brain or pituitary gland tumors or radiation treatment. Sometimes, hormonal difficulties are induced by excessive exercise, malnutrition or other illnesses.